Dating four seasons

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What gets in the way of thi Signs of a Successful Relationship Want a good relationship? Look for these signs. Is online dating a waste of time if I want to get married? Step back and consid Reasons not to Marry Marriage is a big decision, be sure you're doing it for the right A Catholic marriage is more than a contract, it is a sacrament. This is because during summer or winter , one part of the planet is more directly exposed to the rays of the Sun see Fig. For approximately half of the year from around March 20 to around September 22 , the Northern Hemisphere tips toward the Sun, with the maximum amount occurring on about June For the other half of the year, the same happens, but in the Southern Hemisphere instead of the Northern, with the maximum around December The two instants when the Sun is directly overhead at the Equator are the equinoxes.

Also at that moment, both the North Pole and the South Pole of the Earth are just on the terminator , and hence day and night are equally divided between the two hemispheres. Around the March equinox , the Northern Hemisphere will be experiencing spring as the hours of daylight increase, and the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing autumn as daylight hours shorten.

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The effect of axial tilt is observable as the change in day length and altitude of the Sun at solar noon the Sun's culmination during the year. The low angle of Sun during the winter months means that incoming rays of solar radiation are spread over a larger area of the Earth's surface, so the light received is more indirect and of lower intensity. Between this effect and the shorter daylight hours, the axial tilt of the Earth accounts for most of the seasonal variation in climate in both hemispheres.

Compared to axial tilt, other factors contribute little to seasonal temperature changes. The seasons are not the result of the variation in Earth's distance to the Sun because of its elliptical orbit.

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Orbital eccentricity can influence temperatures, but on Earth, this effect is small and is more than counteracted by other factors; research shows that the Earth as a whole is actually slightly warmer when farther from the sun. This is because the Northern Hemisphere has more land than the Southern, and land warms more readily than sea. In the temperate and polar regions , seasons are marked by changes in the amount of sunlight , which in turn often causes cycles of dormancy in plants and hibernation in animals.

These effects vary with latitude and with proximity to bodies of water. For example, the South Pole is in the middle of the continent of Antarctica and therefore a considerable distance from the moderating influence of the southern oceans. The North Pole is in the Arctic Ocean , and thus its temperature extremes are buffered by the water. The result is that the South Pole is consistently colder during the southern winter than the North Pole during the northern winter.

The seasonal cycle in the polar and temperate zones of one hemisphere is opposite to that of the other. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern, and vice versa. The tropical and subtropical regions see little annual fluctuation of sunlight.

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As a result, the amount of precipitation tends to vary more dramatically than the average temperature. When the Zone is north of the Equator, the northern tropics experience their wet season while the southern tropics have their dry season. This pattern reverses when the Zone migrates to a position south of the Equator.

In meteorological terms, the solstices the maximum and minimum insolation do not fall in the middles of summer and winter. The heights of these seasons occur up to 7 weeks later because of seasonal lag. Seasons, though, are not always defined in meteorological terms. In astronomical reckoning by hours of daylight alone, the solstices and equinoxes are in the middle of the respective seasons.

Because of seasonal lag due to thermal absorption and release by the oceans, regions with a continental climate , which predominate in the Northern Hemisphere , often consider these four dates to be the start of the seasons as in the diagram, with the cross-quarter days considered seasonal midpoints. The length of these seasons is not uniform because of Earth's elliptical orbit and its different speeds along that orbit. Calendar-based reckoning defines the seasons in absolute rather than relative terms. Accordingly, if floral activity is regularly observed during the coolest quarter of the year in a particular area, it is still considered winter despite the traditional association of flowers with spring and summer.

Additionally, the seasons are considered to change on the same dates everywhere that uses a particular calendar method regardless of variations in climate from one area to another. Most calendar-based methods use a four-season model to identify the warmest and coldest seasons, which are separated by two intermediate seasons.

Meteorological seasons are reckoned by temperature, with summer being the hottest quarter of the year and winter the coldest quarter of the year. In the Societas Meteorologica Palatina which became defunct in , an early international organization for meteorology, defined seasons as groupings of three whole months as identified by the Gregorian calendar.

Ever since, professional meteorologists all over the world have used this definition. For the southern hemisphere temperate zone, spring begins on 1 September, summer on 1 December, autumn on 1 March, and winter on 1 June. In Sweden and Finland, meteorologists use a non-calendar based definition for the seasons based on the temperature. This implies two things: This almost always occurred in March. However, with global warming this temperature is now not uncommon in the winter.

The Case for Dating at Least Four Seasons

Astronomical timing as the basis for designating the temperate seasons dates back at least to the Julian calendar used by the ancient Romans. It continues to be used on many modern Gregorian calendars worldwide, although some countries like Australia, New Zealand, and Russia prefer to use meteorological reckoning. The precise timing of the seasons is determined by the exact times of transit of the sun over the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn for the solstices and the times of the sun's transit over the equator for the equinoxes , or a traditional date close to these times.

The following diagram shows the relation between the line of solstice and the line of apsides of Earth's elliptical orbit. The orbital ellipse with eccentricity exaggerated for effect goes through each of the six Earth images, which are sequentially the perihelion periapsis—nearest point to the sun on anywhere from 2 January to 5 January, the point of March equinox on 19, 20 or 21 March, the point of June solstice on 20 or 21 June, the aphelion apoapsis—farthest point from the sun on anywhere from 4 July to 7 July, the September equinox on 22 or 23 September, and the December solstice on 21 or 22 December.

These "astronomical" seasons are not of equal length, because of the elliptical nature of the orbit of the Earth, as discovered by Johannes Kepler. From the March equinox it currently takes The times of the equinoxes and solstices are not fixed with respect to the modern Gregorian calendar, but fall about six hours later every year, amounting to one full day in four years. They are reset by the occurrence of a leap year. The Gregorian calendar is designed to keep the March equinox no later than 21 March as accurately as is practical.

Gregorian calendar seasonal error. The calendar equinox used in the calculation of Easter is 21 March, the same date as in the Easter tables current at the time of the Council of Nicaea in AD The calendar is therefore framed to prevent the astronomical equinox wandering onto 22 March. From Nicaea to the date of the reform, the years , , , , , , , and , which would not have been leap years in the Gregorian calendar, amount to nine days, but astronomers directed that ten days be removed.

Currently, the most common equinox and solstice dates are March 20, June 21, September 22 or 23 and December 21; the four-year average slowly shifts to earlier times as the century progresses. This shift is a full day in about years compensated mainly by the century "leap year" rules of the Gregorian calendar and as was a leap year the current shift has been progressing since the beginning of the last century, when equinoxes and solstices were relatively late. This also means that in many years of the twentieth century, the dates of March 21, June 22, September 23 and December 22 were much more common, so older books teach and older people may still remember these dates.

On the other hand, people living far to the west America whose clocks run behind UTC may experience an equinox as early as March Over thousands of years, the Earth's axial tilt and orbital eccentricity vary see Milankovitch cycles. The equinoxes and solstices move westward relative to the stars while the perihelion and aphelion move eastward. Thus, ten thousand years from now Earth's northern winter will occur at aphelion and northern summer at perihelion. The severity of seasonal change — the average temperature difference between summer and winter in location — will also change over time because the Earth's axial tilt fluctuates between Smaller irregularities in the times are caused by perturbations of the Moon and the other planets.

Solar timing is based on insolation in which the solstices and equinoxes are seen as the midpoints of the seasons. It was the method for reckoning seasons in medieval Europe, especially by the Celts , and is still ceremonially observed in Ireland and some east Asian countries. Summer is defined as the quarter of the year with the greatest insolation and winter as the quarter with the least. The solar seasons change at the cross-quarter days, which are about 3—4 weeks earlier than the meteorological seasons and 6—7 weeks earlier than seasons starting at equinoxes and solstices.

Thus, the day of greatest insolation is designated "midsummer" as noted in William Shakespeare 's play A Midsummer Night's Dream , which is set on the summer solstice.

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On the Celtic calendar , the start of the seasons corresponds to four Pagan agricultural festivals - the traditional first day of winter is 1 November Samhain , the Celtic origin of Halloween ; spring starts 1 February Imbolc , the Celtic origin of Groundhog Day ; summer begins 1 May Beltane , the Celtic origin of May Day ; the first day of autumn is 1 August Celtic Lughnasadh.

The traditional calendar in China forms the basis of other such systems in East Asia. Its seasons are traditionally based on 24 periods known as solar terms. These dates were not part of the traditional lunar calendar, however, and moveable holidays such as Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Festival are more closely associated with the seasons. Some calendars in south Asia use a six-season method where the number of seasons between summer and winter can number from one to three.

The dates are fixed at even intervals of months. In the Hindu calendar of tropical and subtropical India, there are six seasons or Ritu that are calendar-based in the sense of having fixed dates: Vasanta spring , Greeshma summer , Varsha monsoon , Sharad autumn , Hemanta early winter , and Shishira prevernal or late winter. The six seasons are ascribed to two months each of the twelve months in the Hindu calendar. The rough correspondences are:. The Bengali Calendar is similar but differs in start and end times.

It has the following seasons or ritu:. The Tamil calendar follows a similar pattern of six seasons. The Noongar people of South-West Western Australia also recognise maar-keyen bonar [18] , or six seasons. Each season's arrival is heralded not by a calendar date, but by environmental factors [19] such as changing winds, flowering plants, temperature and migration patterns and lasts approximately two standard calendar months.

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The seasons also correlate to aspects of the human condition, intrinsically linking the lives of the people to the world that surrounds them and also dictating their movements, as with each season, various parts of country would be visited which were particularly abundant or safe from the elements. The timing and feel of the seasons has been noted as having changed due to the current trends in climate change.

The North American Cree and possibly other Algonquian speaking peoples used or still use a 6 season system. The extra two seasons denoting the freezing and breaking up of the ice on rivers and lakes. Any point north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle will have one period in the summer when the sun does not set, and one period in the winter when the sun does not rise.